Fusion 1998


 The Tokamak concept was proven to be the best fusion research device, and by 1998 devices were within
one order of magnitude of the Lawson break even criterion.l This was an improvement of 4 orders of
magnitude. The experimental devices operating in 1998 also had closed the temperature gap of two orders
of magnitude and were operating at the requisite 200 million degrees. In addition to magnetic fusion
devices, a new and robust approach in which lasers imploded pellets was developed. A variety of other
magnetic fusion devices continued to be developed. 



• Make processing practical

• Much lower processing costs,

• No need to characterize the tank materials,

• Lower radioactive inventory in process flow streams

• Simplification of the system “plumbing” (complexity),

• No additional materials added to the process

• Elimination of most low level waste

 The LVPP technology is described in three U. S. Patents:
1. Bernard J. Eastlund, "Method and Apparatus for Improving the Energy Efficiency for Separating the Elements in a
Complex Substance such as Radioactive Waste with a Large Volume Plasma Processor", U. S. Patent No.
5,868,909, February 29, 1999.

2. Bernard J. Eastlund, "Method and Apparatus for Ionizing All the Elements in a Complex Substance such as
Radioactive Waste and Separating Some of the Elements from the Other Elements", U. S. Patent No. 5,681,434, Oct.
28, 1997.

3. Bernard J. Eastlund, "Method and Apparatus for a Large Volume Plasma Processor that can Utilize any Feedstock
Material", U. S. Patent No. 5,630,880 

Industrial plasma applications proliferated after 1969. The Coalition for Plasma
Science has an excellent description of many of the applications.


 Dr. Eastlund helped develop commercial applications for light emitting microwave plasmas when he
founded Fusion Systems Corporation in 1971. Microwave plasmas had been one of the
approaches to fusion power under investigation at ORNL. He related these experiences, along with
insights into how to write and develop a business plan in an article entitled "A Market Oriented
Approach to Fusion Technology" published in "Journal of Fusion Energy", Vol. 12, No. 4 1993.